Succotash at the Studio

The Story of Spencerian Script

For many years after America had declared its independence, English script was still the standard for all written correspondence. Strictly uniform and consistent, it allowed for almost no individual expression or style. 

Enter a man named Platt Rogers Spencer - when he introduced his "Spencerian" system of handwriting, it revolutionized American correspondence and communication in ways that still pervade our culture today. Click below to keep reading.

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Fancy Feelings: How Flourishes Give Writing an Artistic and Personal Touch

So much of the joy in handwriting is the personal touch we get to express when putting pen to paper - not just line by line, or word by word, but even down to every letter.

When you see a work of writing made up with pretty frills and decorative swirls, and think “Wow, that looks so fancy!”, the secret ingredient to their lettering is surprisingly simple yet completely essential: the proper use of flourishes.

A Flourished History

Also occasionally referred to as “swashes”, flourishes developed out of the free-flowing nature of calligraphy, with known appearances in writing dating back as far as the 16th century. They reached their greatest creative potential when Spencerian script began its all-encompassing dominance over written correspondence in America. Not that many Americans were complaining back when the transition began in the 1800s.

At that time, English script was the standard for writing, and although it wasn’t the complete opposite of Spencerian, looking back, it was a lot like its strict, no-nonsense cousin: While pleasing to the eye, it was also rigidly uniform and consistent, required stiff muscular restriction, and had little room for freedom of expression or personal touch. In short, it made the writing process a bit dull (and a bit painful!).

When the father and namesake of Spencerian script, Mister Platt Rogers Spencer, was developing his revolutionary new handwriting system, much of his inspiration was pulled from the beauty he saw in nature, and the sense of movement and curvature it exhibited all around him. These characteristics began showing up in his handwriting in the form of flourishes.

Personality on Paper






Flourishing was the element that took writing on paper from didactic to artful expression. Now, you weren’t just getting your words  on paper - you were adding your own personal touch with every sentence.

Any process, when given the right tools, has the underlying potential to become a fun activity that invokes enjoyment rather than obligation. Writing is no different. Flourishing added a flair to writing that didn’t just alter the experience for the writer, but affected the reader as well.

Writing with flourishes involved the excitement of exploring with pen on paper and adventuring into new forms of decoration. Reading the finished product meant having a personal invitation into the emotions of the writer. You could understand, in a vivid and visual way, what feeling was guiding them as they wrote. Plus, reading with flourishes added the enjoyment reading with aesthetically pleasing decorations on every line.

Practicing the act of flourishing consistently meant writers could eventually craft their own unique styles and tastes, and even discover which individual letters they enjoyed writing over others.

Michael Sull, Master Penman and renowned teacher of calligraphy, cursive, and handwriting, told us his favorite letters all come down to the very nature of flourishes themselves.

“Flourishes”, he says, “are made of curves. When you have curves in a letter, those are opportunities for flourishing. The more curves a letter presents to you, the fancier it can become.”

“So, I like letters like B and E. The letter M is a really good one. There's a few other letters. The letter R, the letter R is just like the letter B except that it has a leg on the bottom right instead of another loop, but that leg can turn into more flourishing. The letter K, but the first letters I mentioned are probably the nicest ones I like. They can be pretty fancy.”

Me, My Pen, and I

Maybe the greatest part of writing flourishes is its strong relationship with thoughtfulness. Writing with flourishes means your present self is occupied with nothing else but the words on your paper. Your mind, feelings, and muscles are focused purely on your pen and its path. Flourishing captures your whole attention to craft beautiful flairs with personality, and this effort doesn’t go unnoticed.

Flourishes leave a powerful impression when intended for someone else. Receiving anything handwritten is flattering for anyone, but when that writing is accompanied with flourishes, the experience gets taken to a whole level. You took the time to not only write on paper, but also artfully constructed it the whole way through. It makes flourishing one of the most impactful gestures a person can do to show others how much they care.

Starting a Flourishing Journey

A great treat when it comes to flourishing is that, rather than learning an entirely new handwriting system, flourishes can instead be incorporated into your current writing practice. Having a base of fundamentals to learn and work from can both simplify the learning process and immerse anyone in the addicting world of flourished writing.

If you are in Florida, or near the Tampa Bay area, a great opportunity is approaching at the end of November into December. The Master Penman himself, Michael Sull, is bringing his practice to South Tampa to teach his expertise in the field of penmanship.

As well as teaching workshops on Spencerian Script, artistic signatures, and cursive handwriting, Mr. Sull will be instructing a immersive workshop focused on Decorative Flourishing. Michael Sull’s flourishing workshops not only arm students with the essential rules of flourishing, but also help students develop their own unique flourishing style. People walk out of his workshops with newfound knowledge of their own personal tastes, and often with a skill set they didn’t realize they were capable of.

Michael Sull brings his unique teaching style all over the world, and rarely to the Southeast. His visit to the Tampa area is a singular opportunity to work one-on-one with one of the foremost experts on Spencerian script.

We encourage you to keep writing, explore your own style on paper, and if you want to expand your abilities with the powerful joy of decorative flourishing, reserve your seat in Michael Sull’s workshop on December 2nd. Stay creative, and we hope to see you in December.

The Paper Seahorse will be bringing Master Penman Michael Sull to the Tampa area for a weekend-long workshop series. From November 30th to December 2nd, Mr. Sull will be teaching intimate, creative classes on handwriting, flourishing, artistic signatures, and Spencerian script. Class sizes will be limited, so those interested are encouraged to sign up early. More details and class descriptions can be found here



Adventures in American Penmanship: A Weekend With Michael Sull

On November 30th to December 2nd 2018, The Paper Seahorse brings master penman Michael Sull to Tampa for four intensive workshops on Cursive Handwriting, Creating Your Artistic Signature, Introduction to Spencerian Script, and Decorative Flourishing.

The workshops will start with American Cursive, a 3-hour workshop designed to help attendees improve their everyday handwriting skills.

artistic signature with michael sull

Creating Your Artistic Signature, where you will develop a suite of your signatures that can be used in various settings. You will work one-on-one with Mr. Sull to make something as unique as your thumbprint. 

spencerian with michael sull

Beginning Spencerian is an introduction to the 19th century script used in official correspondence prior to the widespread use of the typewriter and the de-facto American standard writing style from about 1850 to 1925. This style is the pre-cursor to modern calligraphy!

flourishing with michael sull

Decorative Flourishing is where you will learn how to embellish your lettering, calligraphy and more. In this beginning class, you will create elegant and polished finishing touches on your handwritten projects.



What is Spencerian Script?

Before the laptop, word-processor, and typewriter, there was Spencerian handwriting. From 1850 on, it was the default for official documents, correspondence, and legal certificates. Uniquely American, it was developed to standardize the style of script used across the growing country when the national population was only 17 million.

Spencerian was at the time and is still today cherished for its improved speed and efficiency and precise slanted style of liquid shapes, meant to mimic nature and be pleasing to the eye.

Two notable corporate logos remain today in the classic Spencerian style: Coca-Cola, and Ford Motor Company.

Why Spencerian Matters

As the first widely adopted American script style and a departure from those developed in Europe, Spencerian is part of our national identity. It’s an art form that requires practice, broad cognitive function, not unlike playing a musical instrument. It is wholly analog, in-the-present creation that many people now crave in our modern, instant-gratification world.

  • Beautiful, unique, and a skill to be built upon
  • Impressive as a hobby, party trick, and increasingly in-demand skill for signage design, wedding invitations, and other creative realms
  • A way to unplug, focus, use your hands, and express yourself creatively

Calligraphy vs. Handwriting

What differentiates calligraphy from “fancy” handwriting? Calligraphy incorporates special writing tools such as broad tips and brushes, and elevates handwriting to an art form. Calligrapher Katharine Scarfe Beckett expands on the definition of calligraphy in What is Calligraphy?


As technology rushes toward VR, AI, and the complete digitization of our lives, reverting back to “analog” methods presents a bevy of proven benefits. 

Many school curriculums have dropped handwriting and cursive instruction in favor of developing digital competencies, but handwriting will always be more authentic (a “signature”) and intentional (less editing ability) than typing on a keyboard or tapping on a screen.

Psychological studies have also linked handwriting to the positive development of fine motor skills. In learning to handwrite, the brain must locate each stroke relative to other stokes, learn and remember appropriate size, slant, and feature detail of each letter, and develop categorization skills. Cursive writing is even more valuable because it is more demanding than simple printing. Cursive is also faster and more likely to engage students to develop a personal style and ownership of their skill.

From Master Penman Michael Sull: "Handwriting is the intimate expression of emotions, wishes and dreams made visible on paper. Through this personal medium we have the privilege of sharing our humanity with everyone, or with no one at all. It is an intensely private occupation that can never be exactly duplicated, yet always reveals a glimpse of the writer’s soul.” (Why write? Penmanship for the 21st Century | Jake Weidmann | TEDxMileHigh)

Michael Sull

Michael Sull (born 1949) is an IAMPETH master penman and author living in Mission, Kansas, United States. An expert on penmanship, he was Ronald Reagan's calligrapher after his Presidency and is known worldwide for his skill and teaching ability. He regularly teaches handwriting, calligraphy, and engrossing programs throughout the United States, Europe and Asia.

Considered America’s foremost living Spencerian penman, he is author of Spencerian Script and Ornamental Penmanship, Learning to Write Spencerian Script, and American Cursive Handwriting, and publishes various other educational materials focusing on pen writing. He also manufactures period style oblique dip pen equipment for use by penmen today. —Wikipedia